1
In HeLa cells. Autophagy. 2011;7(1):27?9. 64. Debnath J, Mills KR, Collins NL, Reginato MJ, Muthuswamy SK, Brugge JS. The role of apoptosis in creating and maintaining luminal space within normal and oncogene-expressing mammary acini. Cell. 2002;111(1):29?0. 65. Fung C, Lock R, Gao S, Salas E, Debnath J. Induction of autophagy during extracellular matrix detachment promotes cell survival. Mol Biol
1
Res of AD cerebellar atrophy include, reductions in Purkinje cell population, atrophy of the molecular and granule cell layers [68], increased amyloid deposition and gliosis in the cortex [69]; increased ubiquitin-immunoreactivity in senile plaques and degenerating neurites [70]; extensive abnormalities in dendritic spine density and synaptic structure in vestibulocerebellar, visual, and auditory
1
S described elsewhere [79]. For molecular and biochemical assays, cerebella were snap-frozen in a dry ice-methanol bath and stored at -80 . We studied cerebellar tissue because the cerebellum: 1) requires intact insulin/IGF signaling to maintain its structural and functional integrity [80,81]; 2) is severely damaged by i.c.-STZ mediated neurodegeneration [19,22]; 3) although relatively spared, it
1
Essor of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University for his kind support and guidance throughout this work and for providing the necessary funding and laboratory facilities.20. 21. 22.Tong et al. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2010, 10:4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/10/RESEARCH ARTICLEOpen AccessEarly limited nitrosamine exposures exacerbate high fat diet-mediated type 2 diabete
1
Agent for RNA extraction and QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Mix were obtained from Qiagen, Inc (Valencia, CA). The AMV 1st Strand cDNAPostnatal day 3 (P3) Long Evans rat pups (mean body weight 10 g) were given 3 alternate day intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injections of 20 g NDEA or vehicle. Upon weaning, male rats (N = 8-10 per group) were pair-fed for 8 weeks with high fat (HFD) or low fat (LFD) chow diets.
1
Software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA). Software generated significant P-values are shown in the graphs or included in the tables.ResultsEffects of NDEA and HFD on Serum Biomarkers of T2DM (Table 2)Tissue homogenates were prepared in radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors, as previously described [46]. Direct ELISAs were performed in 96-well
1
Fects is clearly warranted. In this regard, guidance may be obtained from what is already known about STZ-induced diseases. STZ, like other N-nitroso compounds, causes cellular injury and disease by functioning as: 1) an alkylating agent and potent mutagen [14]; 2) an inducer of DNA adducts leading to increased apoptosis [23]; 3) a mediator of unscheduled DNA synthesis, triggering cell death [14];
1
Antibody (1:10000) and Amplex Red soluble fluorophore [79]. Amplex Red fluorescence was measured (Ex 579/Em 595) in a SpectraMax M5 microplate reader (Molecular Devices Corp., Sunnyvale, CA). Negative control reactions included substitutions with nonrelevant primary or secondary antibodies, and omission of primary or secondary antibody. Immunoreactivities were normalized to protein content as dete